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Agriculture is key to Africa’s future. The continent has most of the world’s arable land, over half of the African population is employed in the sector, and it is the largest contributor to total gross domestic product (GDP). Yet, Africa is still producing too little food and value-added products. Productivity has been broadly stagnant since the 1980s. Despite recent efforts to increase investment, it is still too slow. These facts are not lost on most African leaders, but as with most development issues, it is not a question of what needs to be done, it is how. Too little attention is paid to capacity and how governments can implement reforms. This is what this report sets out to do—and it is an important contribution to the debate.