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At the end of this analysis on environmental challenges as they relate to the achievement the SDGs, it should be said that the progress towards sustainable development in Africa will depend largely on demographic and climatic trajectories, as well as the economic development models to be established by African countries to ensure the growth and performance of their economies and to effectively reduce poverty and check climate change. The various indicators analyzed in this paper show that climate change accelerates environmental degradation with repercussions on Africa’s key production sectors considered as crucial to the achievement of Agenda 2030. Indeed, environmental changes linked to climate impacts generate significant risks for the sustainability of agriculture and food security, the rigorous management of water resources, the preservation of human health, the protection of coastal towns and zones, and the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, to name but a few. The magnitude of challenges posed by ongoing climate risks places sustainable development at the core of the action framework of African countries’ environmental policy. With rapid population growth, climate change impacts and the incidence of poverty, environmental problems threaten to compromise development prospects and the achievement of SDG 2, 3, 6, 11, 14 and 15.