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Genotype-Environment Interaction: Trade-Offs between the Agronomic Performance and Stability of Dual-Purpose Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Genotypes in Senegal

Introducing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes into new environments is necessary for expanding the production of food and fuel, but these efforts are complicated by significant genotype × environment interactions that can reduce their effectiveness. This study set out to thoroughly analyze genotype × environment interactions and assess trade-offs between the agronomic performance and the stability of grain and biomass yields of ten contrasting genotypes under Sudano-Sahelian conditions. Experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. They were conducted from 2013 to 2016 in Bambey, Sinthiou Malem and Nioro du Rip in Senegal. The joint analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p < 0.0001) of genotypes (G), environments (E) and G × E interaction. Most genotypes showed specific adaptations. The best grain yields were obtained by the Nieleni and Fadda hybrids, while the improved varieties IS15401 and SK5912 were best for biomass production. An Additive Main effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis showed that good grain yields were associated with environments having good soil fertility and good rainfall, while biomass yields were more influenced by the sowing date and rainfall. Similarly, we were able to confirm for our 10 sorghum genotypes that yield stability was generally associated with low performance, except for the Nieleni and Fadda hybrids, which performed well for grain and biomass production regardless of the environment. The Senegalese control genotype, 621B, showed particular susceptibility to growing conditions (soil), but remained very productive (more than 3 tons per hectare) under good agro-pedological conditions. These results lead us to recommend the Fadda and Nieleni hybrids for the entire study region, while 621B can also be recommended, but only for highly specific environments with good soils.